Linux安装Oracle 10g

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    目录

    环境

    • 系统
      • RHEL6
    • 软件
      • Oracle 10g
      • VMWare 12
      • JDK 1.8

    RHEL6 Configuration

    Step1:Setup hostname & Close the selinux

    [root@jmilkfan Desktop]# hostname 
    jmilk.fan.com

    vim /etc/sysconfig/selinux

    SELINUX=permissive

    立即生效关闭防火墙

    [root@jmilk ~]# setenforce 0

    Step2:Setup Static IP
    vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

    DEVICE="eth0"
    BOOTPROTO="static"
    HWADDR="00:0C:29:F2:C6:8D"
    NM_CONTROLLED="yes"
    ONBOOT="yes"
    TYPE="Ethernet"
    UUID="f129f448-7aa6-43bd-bf68-699774b0a553"
    IPADDR=192.168.1.222
    NETMASK=255.255.255.0

    Re-start network service

    Step3:Edit /etc/hosts
    vim /etc/hosts

    192.168.1.222 jmilk.fan.com

    Step4:创建用户和用户组

    /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall
    /usr/sbin/groupadd dba
    useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle
    (echo fanguiju;echo fanguiju) | passwd --stdin oracle

    Step5:创建安装路径目录

    [root@jmilk Desktop]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# ll -d /u01/app/oracle/
    drwxrwxr-x. 2 oracle oinstall 4096 May 24 22:22 /u01/app/oracle/

    Step6:配置内核参数
    vim /etc/sysctl.conf

    # Controls the maximum shared segment size, in bytes
    kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
    
    # Controls the maximum number of shared memory segments, in pages
    kernel.shmall = 2097152
    kernel.shmmni = 4096
    kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
    fs.file-max = 6815744
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
    net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
    net.core.wmem_default = 262144
    net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
    net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
    fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576

    刷新配置

    sysctl -p

    Step7:修改limits.conf配置文件

    oracle           soft    nproc   2047
    oracle           hard    nproc   16384
    oracle           soft    nofile  1024
    oracle           hard    nofile  65536

    Step8:修改login配置文件
    vim /etc/pam.d/login

    #Use for Oracle
    session    required     pam_limits.so

    Step9:配置Oracle用户环境变量

    [root@jmilk Desktop]# su - oracle

    vim .bash_profile

    # .bash_profile
    
    # Get the aliases and functions
    if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
            . ~/.bashrc
    fi
    
    # User specific environment and startup programs
    
    PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin
    export PATH
    export ORACLE_SID=gsp
    export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle                     #ORACLE_BASE是最重要的,代表Oracle的安装路径
    export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/dbhome_1       
    export ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
    export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH
    umask 022

    刷新用户环境变量

    source .bash_profile
    DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY

    Step10:修改/etc/profile文件

    if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
        if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
            ulimit -p 16384
            ulimit -n 65536
        else
            ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
        fi
    fi

    Update JDK

    卸载OpenJDK并更新JDK,下载JDK1.8 点这里

    Step1:rpm安装JDK1.8

    [root@jmilk Desktop]#  rpm -qa |grep java 
    tzdata-java-2012j-1.el6.noarch
    java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.9-2.3.4.1.el6_3.x86_64
    java-1.6.0-openjdk-1.6.0.0-1.50.1.11.5.el6_3.x86_64
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# rpm -e --nodeps tzdata-java-2012j-1.el6.noarch
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# rpm -e --nodeps java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.9-2.3.4.1.el6_3.x86_64
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# rpm -e --nodeps java-1.6.0-openjdk-1.6.0.0-1.50.1.11.5.el6_3.x86_64
    [root@jmilk Desktop]# cd /opt/jdk1.8/
    [root@jmilk jdk1.8]# ls
    jdk-8u91-linux-x64.rpm
    [root@jmilk jdk1.8]# rpm -ivh jdk-8u91-linux-x64.rpm 
    Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
       1:jdk1.8.0_91            ########################################### [100%]
    Unpacking JAR files...
        tools.jar...
        plugin.jar...
        javaws.jar...
        deploy.jar...
        rt.jar...
        jsse.jar...
        charsets.jar...
        localedata.jar...
        jfxrt.jar...
    [root@jmilk jdk1.8]# java -version
    java version "1.8.0_91"
    Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_91-b14)
    Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.91-b14, mixed mode)

    配置JDK环境变量
    vim /etc/profile

    JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_91
    JRE_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_91/jre
    PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin:$JRE_HOME/bin
    CLASSPATH=.:$JAVA_HOME/lib/dt.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar:$JRE_HOME/lib
    export JAVA_HOME JRE_HOME PATH CLASSPATH 

    加载配置

    source /etc/profile
    alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_91/bin/java 1
    alternatives --install /usr/bin/javac javac /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_91/bin/javac 1
    alternatives --config java
    alternatives --config javac

    配置Oracle安装环境

    硬件检测

    官方安装文档对硬件额要求

    #At least 512 MB of physical RAM
    内存要大于512M
    #The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space requirement.
    内存和Swap分区的大小要求

    RAM Swap Space
    Up to 512 MB 2 times the size of RAM
    Between 1024 MB and 2048 MB 1.5 times the size of RAM
    Between 2049 MB and 8192 MB Equal to the size of RAM
    More than 8192 MB 0.75 times the size of RAM

    #400 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory
    必须被/tmp目录留下400MB
    #Between 1.5 GB and 3.5 GB of disk space for the Oracle software, depending on the installation type
    需要预留1.5G到3.5G的磁盘空间
    #1.2 GB of disk space for a preconfigured database that uses file system storage

    Step1:查看内存大小

    [root@jmilk Desktop]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    MemTotal:        8046852 kB

    Step2:查看Swap空间大小

    [root@jmilk Desktop]# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
    SwapTotal:       4194296 kB

    Step3:查看/tmp分区的大小

    [root@jmilk Desktop]# df -m /tmp
    Filesystem           1M-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda3                36088      5907     28349  18% /

    软件检测

    因为在安装Oracle的过程中,要重新编译安装许多内置软件程序。所以Oracle的安装环境需要软件依赖包的支撑,Oracle官方安装文档提供了需要预安装的软件包列表:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0:
      • binutils-2.15.92.0.2-10.EL4
      • compat-db-4.1.25-9
      • control-center-2.8.0-12
      • gcc-3.4.3-9.EL4
      • gcc-c++-3.4.3-9.EL4
      • glibc-2.3.4-2
      • glibc-common-2.3.4-2
      • gnome-libs-1.4.1.2.90-44.1
      • libstdc++-3.4.3-9.EL4
      • libstdc++-devel-3.4.3-9.EL4
      • make-3.80-5
      • pdksh-5.2.14-30
      • sysstat-5.0.5-1
      • xscreensaver-4.18-5.rhel4.2

    注意:因为Oracle 10g官方推荐在RHEL4上安装,所以提供的软件包列表版本会偏低。我们在RHEL6中安装Oracle时,无论是检测还是安装的过程中都需要忽略软件包的版本问题。

    rpm -q gcc make binutils openmotif setarch compat-db compat-gcc compat-gcc-c++ compat-libstdc++ compat-libstdc++-devel

    Step1:配置光盘YUM源
    vim /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo

    [local]
    name=local
    baseurl=file:///media
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0

    Step2:安装依赖软件包

    yum install -y gcc-*
    yum install -y binutils-*
    yum install -y openmotif-*
    yum install -y compat-db-*
    yum install -y compat-gcc-*
    yum install -y compat-gcc-c++-*
    yum install -y setarch*
    yum install -y compat-libstdc++*
    yum install -y compat-libstdc++-devel*
    yum install -y compat-libstdc++-33
    yum install -y glibc*
    yum install -y libstdc++*
    yum install -y make*
    yum install libXt.i686
    yum install libXtst.i686
    yum install binutils-2.* compat-libstdc++-33* elfutils-libelf-0.* elfutils-libelf-devel-* gcc-4.* gcc-c++-4.* glibc-2.* glibc-common-2.* glibc-devel-2.* glibc-headers-2.* ksh-2* libaio-0.* libaio-devel-0.* libgcc-4.* libstdc++-4.* libstdc++-devel-4.* make-3.* sysstat-7.* unixODBC-2.* unixODBC-devel-2.* pdksh*
    yum install -y compat-gcc* compat-glibc* compat-libstd*
    rpm -ivh --force libXp-1.0.0-15.1.el6.x86_64.rpm   #需要到Package目录下强制安装

    编辑配置文件

    Step1:配置系统版本
    注意:因为Oracle默认只支持到RHEL4,所以我们需要修改系统版本来欺骗Oracle安装程序。
    vim /etc/redhat-release

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 4.0 (Santiago)

    安装Oracle Database

    Step1:解压Oracle Database安装软件

    mkdir /mnt/hgfs/DataBase/
    cd /mnt/hgfs/DataBase/
    gunzip 10201_database_linux_x86_64.cpio.gz
    cpio -idmv < 10201_database_linux_x86_64.cpio

    Step2:重启并使用oracle用户账号登陆
    注意:不能使用su - oracle

    Step3:执行安装脚本

    [oracle@jmilk Desktop]$ cd /mnt/hgfs/Database/database/
    [oracle@jmilk database]$ ./runInstaller 

    注意:安装过程中如果报“ORA-27125:unable to create shared memory segment”这个错误,一般原因是操作系统用户权限不足的问题,可以通过下面的方式来解决

    id oracle
    echo vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501 > /etc/sysctl.conf
    sysctl -p

    输入Oracle最高级管理员orcl的密码
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    完成安装

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